LGBTQ Head of State
There are many LGBTQ identified Heads of State or government that figure prominently throughout history.
Due to various norms, practices and restrictions, many of the historical individuals did not necessarily publicly identify during their lifetime as lesbian, gay or bisexual. Nevertheless, qualified historians generally agree today on their sexual orientation and behaviour. The most prominent opposition to self-identification has been religious norms - religious leaders and institutions have been sources of opposition for power, and certainly a charge of sodomy was used as a means to diminish the power and respect of an opponent throughout history.
Times have changed in many parts of the world. The contemporary individuals in this list are open and comfortable with their sexual orientation. The first contemporary LGBTQ identified Head of State or government was Johanna Siguroardottir of Iceland. The most recent individuals are Xavier Bettel of Luxembourg, Leo Varadkar of Ireland, and Ana Brnabic of Serbia.
In many cases, LGBTQ Royal heads of state are classified as bisexual. This is because the continuing of the family's reign requires an offspring, and such can only be obtained through a religious sanctioned marriage. These 'marriages of convenience', however, were superseded in the history books by their actual same-sex attractions.
With respect to Royal courts, current law does not provide any clear direction on heirs when it comes to same-sex rulers. Of course, elected heads of state do not face this family-succession issue.
We have identified the following individuals as LGBTQ Heads of State or government. Simply click on their names to read their fascinating biographies and access more stories:
- Afonso VI, Portugal
- Emperor Ai, China
- Alexander the Great, Macedonia
- Xavier Bettel, Luxembourg
- Ana Brnabic, Serbia
- James Buchanan, United States
- Rosario Crocetta, Sicily
- Enrique IV de Castilla, Spain
- Magnus Eriksson, Sweden
- King James I, Great Britain
- King Mwanga II, Buganda Kingdom (Uganda)
- Per-Kristian Foss, Norway
- Frederick the Great, Prussia
- Emperor Hadrian, Rome
- Heliogabalus, also known as Elagabalus, Rome
- Kristina, Sweden
- Ludwig II, Bavaria
- Richard I Coeur de Lion, England
- Cecil Rhodes, South Africa
- Elio di Rupo, Belgium
- Johanna Siguroardottir, Iceland
- Claudius Nero Tiberius, Rome
- Leo Varadkar, Ireland
- William II, Great Britain
- First Out Elected Politicians
- First Out Elected State Politicians - United States of America
- Transgender Politicians